Bachler of Science Syllabus Detail
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B.SC III Year
Paper III CH-303 Physical Chemistry
I Elementary Quantum Mechanics
Black-body radiation, Planck's radiation law, photoelectric effect. heat capacity of solids, Bohr's model of hydrogen atom (no derivation) and its defects, Compton effect.
De Broglie hypothesis, the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Sinusoidal wave equation, Hamiltonian operator, Schrodinger wave equation and its importance, physical interpretation of the wave function, postulates of quantum mechanics, particle in a one dimensional box.
Schrodinger wave equation for H-atom, separation into three equations (without derivation), quantum numbers and their importance, hydrogen like wave functions, radial wave functions, angular wave functions.
Molecular orbital theory, basic ideas - criteria for forming M.O. from A.O, construction of M.O's by LCAO - H2+ ion, calculation of energy levels from wave functions, physical picture of bonding and antibonding wave functions, concept of σ, σ*, π, π* orbitals and their characteristics. Hybrid obitals - sp, sp2. sp3, calculation of coefficients of A.O.'s used in these hybrid orbitals. Introduction to valence bond model of H2, comparison of M.O. and V.B. Modes
Introduction: electromagnetic radiation, regions of the spectrum, basic features of different spectrometers, statement of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, degrees of freedom.
Diatomic molecules. Energy levels of a rigid rotor (semi-classical principles), selection rules, spectral intensity, distribution using population distribution (Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution) determination of bond length, qualitative description of non-rigid rotor, isotope effect.
Infrared spectrum: Energy levels of simple harmonic oscillator, selection rules, pure
vibrational spectrum, intensity, determination of force constant and qualitative relation of
force constant and bond energies, effect of an harmonic motion and isotope on the
spectrum, idea of vibrational frequencies, effect of anharmonic motion and isotope on the
spectrum, idea of vibrational frequencies of different functional groups.
Raman Spectrum: concept of polarizability, pure rotational and pure vibrational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules, selection rules.
Concept of potential energy curves for bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, qualitative description of selection rules and Franck-Condon principle.
Qualitative description of σ, π and n M.O., their energy levels and the respective transitions.
Interaction of radiation with matter, difference between thermal and photochemical processes. Laws of photochemistry: Grothus - Drapper law, Stark - Einstein law, Jablonski diagram depicting various processes occurring in the excited state, qualitative description of fluorescence, phosphorescence, non-radiative processes (internal conversion, intersystem crossing), quantum yield, photosensitized reactions-energy transfer processes (simple examples).
IV Physical Properties and Molecular Structure
Optical activity, polarization - (Clausius - Mossotti equation), orientation of dipoles in an electric field, dipole moment, induced dipole moment, measurement of dipole moment, induced dipole moment, measurement of dipole moment-temperature method and refractivity method, dipole moment and structure of molecules, magnetic properties - paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagetics.
V Solutions, Dilute Solutions and Colligative Properties
Ideal and non-ideal solutions, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions, activity and activity coefficient.
Dilute solution, colligative properties, Raoult's law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, molecular weight determination. Osmosis, law of osmotic pressure and its measurement, determination of molecular weight from osmotic pressure. Elevation of bolling point and depression of freezing point. Experimental methods for determining various colligative properties.
Abnormal molar mass, degree of dissociation and association of solutes.