Bachler of Science Syllabus Detail
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B.SC II Year
Paper II CH-202 Organic Chemistry
I Electromagnetic Spectrum : Absorption Spectra
Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy - absorption laws (Beer-Lambert law), molar absorptivity, presentation and analysis of UV spectra, types of electronic transition, effect
of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and auxochrome. Bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shifts. UV spectra of conjugated enes and enones.
Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy--molecular vibrations, Hooke's law, selection rules, intensity and position of IR bands, measurement of IR spectrum, fingerprint region, characteristic absorptions of various functional groups and interpretation of IR spectra of simple organic compounds.
Classification and nomenclature.
Monohydric alcohols -- nomenclature, methods of formation by reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters. Hydrogen bonding. Acidic nature. Reactions of alcohols.
Dihydric alcohols -- nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical reactions of vicinal glycols, oxidative cleavage [Pb(OAc)4 and HlO4] and pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement.
Trihydric alcohols -- nomenclature and methods of formation, chemical reactions of glycerol.
Nomenclature, structure and bonding. Preparation of phenols, physical properties and acidic character. Comparative acidic strengths of alcohols and phenols, resonance stabilization of phenoxide ion. Reactions of phenols --electrophilic aromatic substitution, acylation and carboxylation. Mechanisms of Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement, Gatterman synthesis, Hauben-Hoesch reaction, Lederer-Manasse reaction and Reimer- Tiemann reaction.
IV Ethers and Epoxides
Nomenclature of ethers and methods of their formation, physical properties. Chemical reactions -- cleavage and autoxidation, Ziesel's method. Synthesis of epoxides. Acid and base-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides, orientation of epoxide ring opening, reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents with epoxides.
V Aldehydes and Ketones
Nomenclature and structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of aldehydes and ketones with particular reference to the synthesis of aldehydes from acid chlorides, synthesis of
aldehydes and ketones using 1, 3-dithianes, synthesis of ketones from nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Physical properties.
Mechanism of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl group with particular emphasis on benzoin, aldol, Perkin and Knoevenagel condensations. Condensation with ammonia and its derivatives. Witting reaction. Mannich reaction.
Use of acetals as protecting group. Oxidation of aldehydes, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, Cannizzaro reaction. MPV, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAlH4 and NaBH4 reductions. Halogenation of enolizable ketones.
An introduction to α, β unsaturated aldehydes and ketones.
VI Carboxylic Acids
Nomenclature, structure and bonding, physical properties, acidity of carboxylic acids, effects of substituents on acid strength. Preparation of carboxylic acids. Reactions of
carboxylic acids. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Synthesis of acid chlorides, esters and amides. Reduction of carboxylic acids. Mechanism of decarboxylation.
Methods of formation and chemical reactions of unsaturated monocarboxylic acids.
Dicarboxylic acids: methods of formation and effect of heat and dehydrating agents.
VII Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Structure and nomenclature of acid chlorides, esters, amides (urea) and acid anhydrides.
Relative stability of acyl derivatives. Physical properties, interconversion of acid derivatives by nucleophilic acyl substitution.
Preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives, chemical reactions. Mechanisms of esterification and hydrolysis (acidic and basic).
VIII Organic Compounds of Nitrogen
Preparation of nitroalkanes and nitroarenes. Chemical reactions of nitroalkanes. Mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution in nitroarenes and their reductions in acidic,
neutral and alkaline media. Picric acid. Halonitroarenes : reactivity. Structure and nomenclature of amines, physical properties. Stereochemistry of amines. Separation of a
mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Structural features effecting basicity of amines. Amine salt as phase-transfer catalysts. Preparation of alkyl and aryl amines
(reduction of nitro compounds nitriles), reductive amination of aldehydic and ketonic compounds. Gabriel-phthalimide reaction. Hofmann bromoamide reaction.
Reactions of amines, electrophilic aromatic substitution in aryl amines, reactions of amines with nitrous acid. Synthetic transformations of aryl diazonium salts, azo coupling.